Monsoon (from fr. mousson and arab. mosem - season) - steady seasonal wind caused by the difference in air temperature over certain areas of the Earth and periodically changing its direction. In the summer, the monsoons blow from the ocean to the continents, in the winter - from the continents to the oceans. The monsoon climate is characterized by high humidity in summer.
Passat - steady air flow throughout the year in tropical latitudes over the oceans. In the Northern Hemisphere, the trade winds are mainly in the north-east direction, in the South - south-east direction. In the ocean, the trade winds cause the occurrence of trade-wind currents, on land they contribute to the formation and preservation of tropical deserts.
Dry wind - wind with high temperature and low relative air humidity in steppes, semi-deserts and deserts. Hot dry wind is marked by anticyclone on its edges.
The speed of dry wind is usually moderate, the relative humidity is low (less than 30%). Dry winds are characteristic of the Caspian Sea and Kazakhstan. Hot dry wind is a drying wind with a speed of 5 to 20 m / s, emanating from the periphery of anticyclones in summer, mainly during the invasion of tropical air masses (analogs of Khamsin, Sirocco, etc.). At high temperatures (20–25 ° C), the air of dry winds has a large moisture deficit at low relative humidity (less than 30%), which causes a sharp increase in evaporation from the soil.
Typhoon - A type of tropical cyclone that is typical for the northwestern Pacific. The word comes from the Chinese taifeng.
Typhoon activity zone, which accounts for the third part of the total number of tropical cyclones on Earth, is between the East Asian coast in the west, the equator in the south, and the date change line in the east. Although most typhoons form from May to November, other months are also not free from them.
In North and South America, strong winds are called hurricanes (isp. huracan, eng. hurricane), by the name of the Indian god of the wind Huracan.
Pampero (Spanish pampero - “wind from the pampa”) - a cold storm south / southwest wind in eastern Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, sometimes with rain. Associated with the invasions of Antarctic air.
They usually come suddenly after warm northern winds, carry clouds of dust and are accompanied by a rapid increase in pressure and a decrease in temperature. According to its properties, they completely correspond to cold, dry north-western winds off the eastern shores of Asia and North America. On the coast, Pampero often also gives way to cold and strong, but humid, southeast winds.
The first stage is usually called Pampero Humedo (“wet pampero”), and the second is Pampero Seco (“dry pampero”), which passes into the Pampero Sucio dust storm. Although pampero can happen at any time of the year, it is usually the strongest in early summer in the southern hemisphere, between October and January.
Fyon (him. Fohn, fr. fœhn) - strong, gusty, warm and dry wind blowing from the mountains into the valleys.
The cold air from highlands quickly descends down the relatively narrow intermountain valleys, which leads to its adiabatic heating. When lowering every 100 m, the air heats up by about 1 ° C. Descending from a height of 2500 m, it heats up at 25 ° C and becomes warm, even hot. Usually hair dryer lasts less than a day, but sometimes it lasts up to 5 days, and changes in temperature and relative humidity of the air can be rapid and abrupt.
Fenas are especially frequent in spring, when the intensity of the general circulation of air masses increases dramatically. Unlike hair dryer, during the invasion of masses of dense cold air boron is formed.
Khamsin (arab. fifty) is a dry, exhaustingly hot wind of southern directions in northeastern Africa (Egypt, Sudan) and in the countries of the Middle East (see Climate of Israel). The air temperature is often above 40 ° C, with a strong wind force. Khamsin blows for several days, for a total of about 50 days a year, mostly from spring to autumn. It occurs in the front parts of cyclones moving from the deserts of North Africa, so the Khamsin can be saturated with sand and dust.
Sharav - dry, exhaustingly hot wind, east and south. It occurs in the front parts of cyclones moving mainly from the Arabian and Sinai deserts. Often with dust and sand. Air temperature in summer is often above 40 ° C.
Barguzin - the mighty Baikal wind, mentioned in the song “The Glorious Sea - Sacred Baikal”, blows mainly in the central part of the lake from the Barguzin Valley across and along the Baikal. This wind blows smoothly, with a gradually increasing power, but its duration is noticeably inferior to Verkhovik. Usually precedes a steady sunny weather.
Barguzin - smooth and strong northeast wind. The names of the night owl (sometimes barguzin blows at night) and the already outdated one are used. Air flow escapes from the Barguzin Valley.
In contrast to the longitudinal winds - the upper man and the kultuk - the Barguzin blows across the lake basin and only in its middle part. It is assumed that under certain conditions, the Barguzin can reach southern Baikal. In terms of duration and strength, it is inferior to Verkhovik and Kultuk.
Barguzin usually does not blow for more than a day, most often begins after sunrise and subsides towards sunset. Usually, Barguzin brings with it sunny weather. Wind speed rarely exceeds 20 m / s, but in the Barguzinsky Bay it can reach hurricane strength.
Chius - A sharp north wind accompanied by severe frost in the north of the USSR. In the lower reaches of the river. Pechora and in its delta is a winter northeast wind with a clear sky, when an anticyclone is located over the Kara Sea. In Transbaikalia, the Krasnoyarsk Territory and on Kamchatka, Xius is a winter north wind (siver, siverka), rarely reaching a speed of 15 m / s, this is cold air flow through river valleys. In Kamchatka, sometimes a cold weather is called a chius.
And, of course, speaking not so much about the winds themselves, as about their romantic names, there is no way to do without the most fantastic wind - the wind from Max Fry's “Nest of Chimeras”:
“The first wind is blowing from Cless,” a voice sang, “and he is assertive, as if released from the breasts of a magnificent ulla; he blows six days. The other wind is Oveotganna and Hugaydaand far his homeland, unshakable and unknown. He blows two moons, silenced only for a while. The third wind comes rarely from those places where Haba’s raging dunes, rocks and lakes bring it to life. ”
- It seemed to me that I finally see the owner of this wonderful voice - it turned out to be a cloud of golden mist, radiant and mobile. I stretched out my hands to dip them into this little cloud - for some reason it seemed to me that touching it would give me a pleasure that I did not dare to dream of - and woke up. In the cave it was quite light, no golden clouds here, unfortunately, were found ... "And as it were Hugayd," I heard again and was amazed at how the wonderful voice changed from my dream: now it became hoarse and ghostly quiet ... and then I realized that I myself uttered these charming words, the meaning of which was completely incomprehensible to me ... "
It must be said that, despite the incomprehensibility of the above passage, the author of the book remarkably grasped the rhythm and intonation of the descriptions of the winds in batches and the like technical literature of the seas.
And on this remarkably romantic note, we again turn to the consideration of paintings depicting the wind ...