Most likely, the dwellings of people "tumbleweed" go back to the tents, invented in ancient times by the peoples of the Middle East. The wagon of the ancient Germanic or colonizer of the Far West of the Main-Rid times became the prototype of today's popular caravans or automobiles with a residential compartment known as the "Caravan" (motorhome, car caravan, camper).
How did housing our ancestors, who decided to settle down and settle down? Plowman appreciated the low thermal conductivity of loose soft soil: following the example of animal burrows, a dwelling consisting of a hole dug in the ground with a narrow entrance emerged. On top of such pits, people laid tree trunks, logs, poles, branches, turf and the ground itself. But living in such an earthen pit was not very pleasant during the rains — the soil was becoming damp and cold. Then on the sides of the earthworks began to install the wall "in the log house" of logs, plugging the gaps between the logs with moss, earth, promazyvaya clay. In the North, grooves caulked with moss, which has the property of killing bacteria. A roof with powdered earth or sod served as cover. So a dugout arose, which two thousand years ago was a typical winter dwelling for the Germans and the Slavs.
Where there was nothing on hand except for snow and ice, local builders appreciated the low thermal conductivity of snow. The peoples of the North also built peculiar dugouts, huts made of ice and snow. Escaping from death in the cold, people hid in these shelters with whole families and spent most of the winter there, heating them with their breath and lighting them with lamps with seal fat (the Eskimo name is igloo).
The chicken hut is no different from the "stupid" Karelians
A hut without windows or with a very small window-pill, with benches along the walls was a haven just a thousand years ago, terrible to say - to the kings, more precisely - to the king. The “Winter Palace” of the Norwegian kings didn’t, in fact, differ from a black-flagged hut or a bathhouse. To illuminate and release smoke from the hearth, spread out on the dirt floor, which became the prototype of the furnace, served as a sunroof.
Window glass appeared in Europe in the 10th century, in the earliest windows there were small openings with a frame that walked horizontally, they were called “treads” from the verb “drag”. Much later, already in the Middle Ages, in the Scandinavian countries, glass windows became an expensive pleasure, for which you also had to pay taxes, since the Swedish king introduced a tax on glass windows.
It is still possible to find log houses in the farmsteads of Finland, which are very reminiscent of stylized Russian “hut on chicken legs”. Such houses were built in Karelia and in Russia. Scientists suggest that the cult buildings of the Finno-Ugrians who buried their dead in small houses arranged on high stumps could be a prototype of the home of the folk character of the woman Yaga. Apparently, this custom was common for the Ural and Siberian tribes. The Orochons, the native inhabitants of Transbaikalia, buried their fellow tribesmen in the trees until the Russian settlers banned such a ritual. The animal smell was attracted by the smell of a corpse, the animals were so divorced that they attacked the living Cossacks in the taiga, and the wolves bullied dogs in the villages.
Has the old hut survived in our time?
Yes, she remained alive in the form of wooden cans, of which there are so many in Russia, and forest huts (“haunts”). The older such a capture, the deeper it goes into the ground. Linguists have noticed a similarity in the etymology of the Russian word "izba" and Finnish "stupid."
In Russian, a synonym for the word “izba” is the word “stoving”, which means a heated building. In German, the word "shtebe" means "heated room", in turn, which came from the Latin - "esto" - "stove". The Finnish word “stupid” is most likely related to the Russian verb “to drown” and means the same as in Russian and German languages - “heated room”, “hut”.
A typical semi-dark hut preserved in central Finland. According to the historian of the Karelian region, Mainov, “as a result of the winter cold, the korelia decided to live in winter almost as a mole. As soon as the first frost is good, it captures quiet lambas (stretches), so is the Koreljak to work. He stabs his windows up to the uppermost glasses, if only a little light passed and not very much in the hut it was dark during the day, and spent the whole winter in the dim light - good, he cannot weave lace, not figured figures. A typical semi-dark hut preserved in central Finland.
Do Finns dance from the stove?
Behind the small windows there is the utter darkness of a winter night, and in the hut the furnace is heated. It is the center of everything, the Russian expression “to dance from the stove” has the same meaning for the Finns. Most of the room is occupied by it, the stove. The massive kiln pillar and the shelves extending from it at right angles to each other are the main "structures" in the Finnish dull. Bark bark, boxes, spoons, salt shakers, just-woven sandals are lined up on the shelves.
The modern inhabitants of Finnish houses, in which there is an old stove, are able to care for it. The profession of a stove-houseman, driving around a farm - earlier on a horse, and now by car - is in demand to this day. Wood-burning stoves differ in design, it is becoming more modern, but the principle of kindling a stove with wood remains the same as it was in ancient times. The owners strive to preserve the tradition, especially when it comes to the most important thing - the source of heat, comfort and hot food.
Old people tell young people that there are stoves right and wrong. If the firebox is too deep, the fire does not heat the stove enough. You just need to raise the grate bottom of the furnace. But if it is too low, some threshold is too low there, the stove does not heat up. It is necessary in this case to raise the oven. The gap in the stove interfere with the burden. The stove gets cold! It is necessary to smear all the cracks with clay. Old men teach how to clean the ashes. If a lot of ash has accumulated, then this stove, and oven, and the boiler, if there is, is warming up poorly. The stove must be cleaned regularly. Day start with inspection stove. About the need to know. Too strong traction contributes to the rapid burning of wood or coal, and the stove does not have time to heat up, dinner is not prepared! The traction is correct if the flame of a candle, brought to the firebox, is deflected at right angles, but does not go out.
(The photos of the author, the Museum of Central Finland were used as illustrations.)