Why today? Reasonable question. Of course, it could have been done on the last Sunday of August, when the whole country (and now it’s not alone!) Celebrates that Miner's Day, which was introduced into the all-union turnover by the Decree of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet on September 10, 1947. But! There are miners in Kuzbass. In the same Prokopyevsk, for example. Or in the Donbass, where those mines ... And the Rostov region? In it - even a special town, which is called - Mines.
Here it is. There are a lot of coal-producing regions. Even more - mining cities. And Vorkuta, as it should be the capital - one. And it is necessary to remember about it today.
Exactly October 4, 1932 in Vorkuta, the first coal mine was commissioned, with which, in fact, mining began in those places of "reliable black gold." There was no electricity yet. All mining, from cutting coal to lifting it to the surface, was done manually. Yes, and "on the mountain" was going ... A little. So, after all, any beginning is the worst.
It was from this mine No. ½, which was later renumbered as No. 8, the industrial development of the Pechora coal basin began. October 4, he, and hence the Vorkuta, - Birthday.
How did it all begin? Why in order to build a 460-kilometer single-track railway line of Kozhva-Vorkuta in 1941, by special order of the State Defense Committee, 1,700 tons of bridge spans were not removed from any construction sites - from the construction of the Kremlin Palace of Soviets? Why in the small - 86.4 thousand inhabitants according to 2002 - the city has two professional theaters? About all this - somehow later. And now - about the capital. Why?!
Many probably remember how Kosoy-Kramarov played in “Cities”:
- Vorkuta ... I sat there.
Yes, the words can not be thrown out of the song. Even that, the very first mine, built a convict. And the first coal "on the mountain" was raised precisely with their hands.
As of January 1, 1945, 38,989 prisoners were involved in the mines and industrial enterprises of the Vorkutaugol combine. The share of the convict among the workers was 76.8%, among the employees - 57.1. And if you add civilians here, most of whom were former but already freed prisoners ...
Here are just a prisoner here was not easy. Of course, the criminal element was present. But he did not determine the face of the prisoner Vorkuta. On the construction of industrial facilities in the mines of Vorkuta mainly worked "political". Many prominent scholars and cultural figures. Large, well-known experts of almost all sectors of the economy. Including, and its non-material sphere. Suffice it to say that it is the prisoner who laid the foundations for the city’s health care. Or ... Also, even a small, but very eloquent touch: the first artistic director of the Musical and Dramatic Theater of the Vorkutastroy of the NKVD of the USSR, founded in 1943 (!), Was Boris Arkadyevich Mordvinov. Former chief director of the Bolshoi Theater.
There were also prisoners of war Poles, Germans, Austrians, Hungarians. And not prisoners of war. Already their own, "mobilized" Germans disbanded in 1941, the Volga Republic. Of course, not all of these foreigners were teachers or doctors, but they brought with them a piece of European culture, brought their neighbors into the lives of campers, instilled in Vorkuta itself, which grew and became a city with them.
The decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR on November 11, 1943 confirmed the September resolution of a similar Council of the Komi ASSR on the transformation of the working village of Vorkuta into the city. Were there still in those times in our country cities whose population (actually the population) was 7,132 people? And the capital buildings of the “city” could be counted by bending the fingers of one hand. And then - not all.
Not simple, oh, not simple this city. And very beautiful. Especially its center, which was built up in the post-war years according to the designs of the architects of the Leningrad school - G.V. Gontskevich, V.N. Lunev, N.V. Savchin. In 1956, the polar builders commissioned a city swimming pool and a mining technical school. The latter is not just a building. Monument of town planning. About that, even in the Short Art Encyclopedia "The Art of Countries and Peoples of the World" - in black and white. Five years later, the Palace of miners and builders stood on Peace Square.
A little later, in 1967, literally in 11 months, another Palace was built. Pioneers and schoolchildren. And again - not just a building. The third largest among their own kind in the entire Soviet Union!
A recreation park? And this is in the city, which lies 160 km north of the Arctic Circle and in which there is snow ... Or, if according to scientists, the “duration of the period with steady snow cover” is 204 days. Two hundred and four! And only 52, when the mercury column of the street thermometer does not fall below the mark with the number zero. Again, if you cast a shadow on the fence - this is the “frost-free period” ...
No, really, a very beautiful city. If someone hums incredulously:
- What is it? Tundra.
Yes. Tundra. Bolshezemelskaya. And taka-th ...
Only up to the outskirts. And ... Here she is. A vast expanse. To the horizon. Where in the blue cold haze appear the spurs of the Polar Urals. And the green power of grass and dwarf grass, tightly pressed by ruthless winds to the ground, vegetation, which is right before your eyes - up, up. To the sun. To have time to grow up in a short time, to bloom, ripen and grow off ...
There, in the midst of this space, you realize that you are only there. Right now. Well, maybe some more. And what was around was before you and after you will be a long, long time. Is always. That's what it is now, in front of you. Like the Eternal Jew. That is forever young and healthy. Until then, until you look into his eyes. Look in ... And there - Eternity. And under the watchful gaze of this eternity, everything suddenly becomes so shallow and unimportant.
Except one. That shoulder, which is near. If suddenly what ... Is it possible to rely on him? Because the North - he, like a sieve. Flour passes and remains. From her bread will be. The one that later, if anything - can be divided in half. Everything else is a husk, a chaff that was thrown away and forgotten. But what remains - you can rely on it. It is strong.
Therefore, the main wealth of Vorkuta is not coal. Not the city itself. Not rich nature around it. People! Without which there would be nothing. And there will be nothing ...
I understand that today Vorkuta is not the same as it was before. In the 50s. Or in the 70s. But I am sure that the Vorkuta spirit that was, it is now. And neither “perestroika”, nor “market reforming”, nor “financial crisis” can ever stand for it. Vorkuta was, is and will be - the capital of the world. By law. His right, which is determined by people who proudly call themselves "Vorkuta". Even if now they are far from the places that gave them the right to bear this name.
I want today not only I to remember this small mining town that stands on the right tributary of the Mustache - the Vorkuta River. Which name, if translated from Nenets - Bear.
From Nenets, from Nenets - no one misheard! Until 1940, these territories were part of the Nenets Autonomous District. Only after May 10, 1940, the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) and the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR adopted a special decree "On the construction of the North-Pechora railway and the development of mining Vorkuta-Pechora coal", it became clear that this transport artery closely connects the region with Komi ASSR. And the environs of the city, which was not even then, were transferred to this autonomous republic.
Here it is, Vorkuta. It bears a Nenets name. Included in the Republic of Komi. It was built by Russians, Ukrainians, Poles, Germans. Coal is also mined by all the "Internationale" ... So it’s not fairy tales. And not the fruit of the inflamed imagination of the author. Capital is she! The capital of the world ... Does anyone else doubt this ?!